Gangs and County Lines
What is a street gang?
A gang is usually considered to be a group of people who spend time in public places that
- see themselves (and are seen by others) as a noticeable group, and
- engage in a range of criminal activity and violence.
- They may also have any or all of the following features
- identify with or lay a claim over territory,
- are in conflict with other, similar gangs
Why do young people want to belong to a gang?
Here are some of the reasons young people might give for being in a gang:
- a sense of belonging
- they think it will make them safer
- they think they will make money
Bonding and group identity are an important part of social life and growing up. But when a bond is based around crime, violence is usually not far away.
Children and young people involved with, or on the edges of, gangs might be victims of violence or they might be pressured into doing things like robbery or carrying drugs or weapons. They might be abused, exploited or put into dangerous situations.
What is 'County lines'?
‘County lines’ is the term used to describe the approach taken by gangs originating from large urban areas, who travel to locations elsewhere such as county or coastal towns to sell class A drugs. Gangs typically recruit and exploit children and vulnerable young people to courier drugs and cash. Typically, users ask for drugs via a mobile phone line used by the gang. Couriers travel between the gang’s urban base and the county or coastal locations on a regular basis to collect cash and deliver drugs. Gangs recruit children and young people through deception, intimidation, violence, debt bondage and/or grooming. Gangs also use local property as a base for their activities, and this often involves taking over the home of a vulnerable adult who is unable to challenge them.
County lines cuts across a number of issues including: drug dealing, violence, gangs, exploitation, safeguarding, modern slavery and missing persons. It is critical that practitioners working directly with children and vulnerable adults are aware of what county lines is, how to identify those at risk or involved in county lines exploitation and what action to take. Please read more in the core brief from the DfE (March 2017) in Resources below and in the Home Office Guidance about County Lines (July 2017).
How can you help a child involved in a gang?
Suggest to the child or young person to call Childline on 0800 1111 for support and advice - it's a free 24/7 confidential helpline for children - or they can access more information about gangs on the Childline website
Call NSPCC helpline for more advice about how to help, which is specific to the child's or young person's situation.
Redthread has programmes such as 'Gangs exit' and a Youth Violence Intervention programme based in A&E.
Always consider other often related risks such as CSE, going Missing from home or care or radicalisation when you have a concern about gang affiliation or county line involvement. Please see the Young People at Risk Strategy below.
If you are worried about a child, contact the Integrated Referral Hub:
- Professionals' Line: 020 7926 3100
- Public Line: 0207 926 5555 (24 hours)
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com (secure email)
If you are a professional, please always follow up your referral in writing by filling in the Multi-Agency Referral Form (MARF) and forward it to the email address above.
If a child is at immediate risk of significant harm, please dial 999
Young People at Risk Strategy
The LSCB published a Young People at Risk Strategy which sets out our ambition and resolve for young people to be free from the risk of
- Missing from home, care or education
- Serious Youth Violence
- Involvement with gangs and/ or County Lines
It was launched at the YPAR conference in October 2017, please see the keynote speaker presentations below and a brief video from the conference:
- Annie Hudson, Strategic Director Lambeth Children Social Care
- Dr. Helen Beckett from University of Bedfordshire (CSE)
- Junior Smart (SOS, St Giles) and watch 'Breaking the cycle' (SOS project)
- John Poynton and Lucy Knell-Taylor from Redthread (SYV)
- Robyn Marsh, Safer London (Missing children/Return home interviews)
Ending gang violence and exploitation sets out the 6 priorities of the new cross-government approach to ending gang violence and exploitation (2016).
Safeguarding Children affected by Gang Activity / Serious Youth Violence (London Child Protection Procedures)